PMSP for Turfgrass in the Southern US

Source

TypePMSPs
Date10/21/2004
PDFhttps://ipmdata.ipmcenters.org/documents/pmsps/SouthernTurfgrass.pdf
SettingTurfgrass
StateAlabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas
Contact
Contributors

Settings/Crops



Executive Summary




Background





Priorities

Category Rank Pest Type Pest Crop Stage Date Priority
Extension/Outreach 1 2004 Biology and control of mosses and algae.
Extension/Outreach 1 All Pest Types 2004 Increased funding for educational efforts is required as funds for education in all areas is declining and a larger user group needs to be served.
Extension/Outreach 1 Insects 2004 Better ways to communicate disease management strategies.
Extension/Outreach 1 Pathogens 2004 The production of turf is the fastest growing agricultural related industry in the South. Continued development of research-based educational programs targeted to homeowners, schools, commercial horticulture industries, government/parks and recreation and extension personnel.
Extension/Outreach 2 2004 Develop high-quality electronic and conventional publications for ecology and biology of weeds in turfgrasses.
Extension/Outreach 2 All Pest Types 2004 Researchers in the turfgrass commodity needs better access to agricultural grant programs due to the rapid expansion of the urban sector.
Extension/Outreach 2 Insects 2004 Fungicide resistance management.
Extension/Outreach 2 Pathogens 2004 Education on pesticide stewardship and the reduction of unnecessary pesticide applications through research-based extension programs.
Extension/Outreach 3 2004 Develop high-quality electronic and conventional publications for weed management in turfgrasses.
Extension/Outreach 3 All Pest Types 2004 Development of additional distance education opportunities.
Extension/Outreach 3 Insects 2004 Disease prediction related to best management practices.
Extension/Outreach 3 Pathogens 2004 There are major needs for programs targeted towards pest management education and the funding that can support the development and delivery of those programs.
Extension/Outreach 4 2004 There is strong need to develop a comprehensive, college-level text-book on turfgrass pest (weeds, insects, diseases) management.
Extension/Outreach 4 All Pest Types 2004 Better coordination among the disciplines in educational programs.
Extension/Outreach 5 2004 Conduct appropriate workshops, field days and conferences for professional turfgrass managers as well as retail professionals.
Extension/Outreach 5 All Pest Types 2004 Better service for traditionally underserved audiences including non-English speaking audiences and youth education.
Regulatory 1 2004 More strict enforcement of existing regulations. In particular, application by non-certified applicators.
Regulatory 1 All Pest Types 2004 More thorough inspection for certification of transported turfgrass materials is required.
Regulatory 1 Insects 2004 Regulation of soil and plant material movement related to nematodes needs improvement regarding the following pests in particular: Reniform and citrus nematodes; Soybean cyst nematode important if planning to ship into Canada.
Regulatory 1 Pathogens 2004 A better understanding of the movement of turf pests from infested to uninfested areas in plant materials from commercial nurseries and turf farms.
Regulatory 2 2004 Require more continuing education for certified applicators.
Regulatory 2 All Pest Types 2004 Enforcement of existing regulations and quarantines.
Regulatory 2 Insects 2004 Regulations among states and/or countries needs to be harmonized to streamline permit process. This is particularly important in regards to research materials.
Regulatory 2 Pathogens 2004 New insecticide products, especially to address existing and potential resistance to currently registered products.
Regulatory 3 2004 Greater role for regulators in education. Funding for Extension: Revision of educational criteria to encourage annual training (e.g., Georgia).
Regulatory 3 All Pest Types 2004 Provide increased training opportunities and require higher educational standards for commodity inspectors.
Regulatory 3 Pathogens 2004 There is a grave need for new acaricide products to help manage the eriophyid mites in bermudagrass, zoysiagrass and buffalograss.
Regulatory 4 2004 Reclassification of sod production into EPA agricultural production as opposed to non-crop land. Permit use of agricultural chemical products in sod production.
Regulatory 4 All Pest Types 2004 Increase numbers of well-trained inspectors.
Regulatory 4 Pathogens 2004 Stronger coordination of APHIS, the state regulatory agencies and the designated plant diagnostic laboratories for detection, identification and management of potential invasive species (e.g. fire ants).
Regulatory 5 All Pest Types 2004 Consider reclassification of sod production to permit greater access to agricultural pesticide products.
Research 1 2004 Perennial grass control in turf.
Research 1 All Pest Types 2004 More information related to the basic biology and ecology of turfgrass pests.
Research 1 Insects 2004 Root health regarding fungi that are not well known (biology).
Research 1 Pathogens 2004 Pest ecology, life history, behavior and host/pest associations of major pests, and all information on minor pests (eriophyid mites, ground pearls), biological control and host plant resistance.
Research 2 2004 Weed control during establishment.
Research 2 All Pest Types 2004 Better integration of pest management among disciplines.
Research 2 Insects 2004 Interactions between pathogens including nematodes.
Research 2 Pathogens 2004 There are critical gaps in knowledge of pests and their management that are needed for development of extension education pest management programs.
Research 3 2004 Methyl bromide alternatives.
Research 3 All Pest Types 2004 Pest and pesticide resistance management (including genomics).
Research 3 Insects 2004 Need for fumigation alternatives.
Research 3 Pathogens 2004 Support for efficacy trials of lower-risk insecticides/nematicides and bio-rationals to develop safer management systems.
Research 4 2004 More chemical alternatives for resistance management.
Research 4 All Pest Types 2004 Better integration of social sciences into turfgrass use, maintenance, etc.
Research 4 Insects 2004 More information about soil mixes related to root health.
Research 4 Pathogens 2004 Impact of insecticides on target, secondary and introduced pests and on beneficial organisms.
Research 5 2004 Environmental implications of herbicide resistant grass (biotech).
Research 5 Insects 2004 Cultural options for pathogen management.
Research 6 2004 Environmental fate of herbicides.
Research 6 Insects 2004 Disease prediction related to best management practices.
Research 7 2004 Biology and control of mosses and algae.
Research 8 2004 Postemergence control of perennial grass weeds such as nimblewill, dallisgrass, vaseygrass, torpedograss and common bermudagrass.
Research 9 2004 Selective control of one turfgrass species that is growing as a weed in a different turfgrass species.
Research 10 2004 Develop control programs for “newer” turfgrass weeds such as niruri, doveweed and lindernia (Lindernia crustacea).
Research 11 2004 Biology and ecology of turfgrass weeds.
Research 12 2004 Develop effective control programs for Virginia buttonweed, annual bluegrass, sedge and Kyllinga ssp.
Research 13 2004 Develop weed management strategies for herbicide-tolerant turfgrasses.
Research 14 2004 Develop integrated control programs to prevent the development of herbicide-resistant weeds.
Research 15 2004 Develop effective cultural and mechanical methods to control turfgrass weeds (i.e. non-chemical).
Research 16 2004 Elucidate soil parameters that influence turfgrass weed populations.
Research 17 2004 Document shifts in weed species that may occur due to cultural methodology, or changing herbicide use patterns and chemistries.
Research 18 2004 Determine invasive nature and prevent turfgrass species encroachment into native plant communities.

Production Facts

Production Year
US Rank
% US Acres
Acres Planted
Acres Harvested
Growers
Production
Production Costs/Acre
Natl Avg/Acre
State Avg/Acre
Per Acre Value
Production Value
Price
References

Worker Activities

Production Counties

Production Practices

IPM Practices

Pollinator Protection

Pests


No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

Beneficials

Biological Controls

Cultural Controls

Physical Controls

Chemical Controls

Active Ingredient CAS PC Pests REI (hrs) PHI (days) Description IPM Resistance
2,4-d 0
Abamectin 71751-41-2 122804
Acephate 30560-19-1 103301
Atrazine 1912-24-9 80803
Azadirachtin 108168-76-9 121701
Bacillus Thuringiensis (bt) 0
Bendiocarb 22781-23-3 105201
Benefin 1861-40-1 84301
Bensulide 741-58-2 9801
Bentazon 50723-80-3 275200
Bifenthrin 83322-02-5 128825
Bromoxynil 1689-84-5 35301
Carbaryl 63-25-2 56801
Carfentrazone-ethyl 128639-02-1 128712
Chlorpyrifos 2921-88-2 59101
Clopyralid 1702-17-6 117403
Clothianidin 210880-92-5 44309
Cyfluthrin 68359-37-5 128831
Cypermethrin 52315-07-8 109702
Deltamethrin 66841-25-6 97805
Dicamba 1918-00-9 29801
Diclofop-methyl 51338-27-3 110902
Dinotefuran 165252-70-0 44312
Dithiopyr 97886-45-8 128994
Dsma 5967-62-4 13802
Ethofumesate 26225-79-6 110601
Ethoprop 13194-48-4 41101
Fenarimol 60168-88-9 206600
Fenoxaprop 66441-23-4 128701
Fenoxycarb 79127-80-3 125301
Fipronil 120068-37-3 129121
Fluazifop 69806-50-4 122805
Fluroxypyr 69377-81-7 128959
Foramsulfuron 173159-57-4 122020
Glyphosate 1071-83-6 417300
Halofenozide 112226-61-6 121026
Halosulfuron 0
Hydramethylnon 67485-29-4 118401
Imazapic 104098-48-8 129041
Imazaquin 81335-37-7 128848
Imidacloprid 138261-41-3 129099
Indoxacarb 173584-44-6 67710
Isoxaben 82558-50-7 125851
Lambda-cyhalothrin 91465-08-6 128897
Mcpp 87394-87-4 600096
Metolachlor 51218-45-2 108801
Metribuzin 21087-64-9 101101
Metsulfuron 74223-64-6 122010
Msma 2163-80-6 13803
Oryzalin 19044-88-3 104201
Oxadiazon 19666-30-9 109001
Pendimethalin 40487-42-1 108501
Permethrin 52645-53-1 109701
Prodiamine 29091-21-2 110201
Pronamide 23950-58-5 101701
Pyriproxyfen 95737-68-1 129032
Quinclorac 84087-01-4 128974
Rimsulfuron 122931-48-0 129009
S-methoprene 65733-16-6 105402
Sethoxydim 74051-80-2 121001
Siduron 1982-49-6 35509
Simazine 39312-80-6 80807
Spinosad 168316-95-8 110003
Sulfosulfuron 141776-32-1 85601
Trichlorfon 52-68-6 57901
Triclopyr 55335-06-3 116001
Trifloxysulfuron-sodium 290332-10-4 119009
Trifluralin 1582-09-8 36101

Efficacy

Pest Active Ingredient PC Code CAS Efficacy Code Comments
Efficacy Codes
UUnknown
EExcellent, 90-100%
GGood, 80-90%
FFair, 60-80%
PPoor, 25-60%
NCNo Control, <25%
G-EGood to Excellent, 80-100%
F-EFair to Excellent, 50-100%
P-EPoor to Excellent, 25-100%
F-GFair to Good, 50-90%
P-GPoor to Good, 25-90%
P-FPoor to Fair, 25-80%
NUNot Used
RRarely Used

Resistance Management

Toxicity


Timelines


Production Practices JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Pests JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Stages JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Chemicals JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments
2,4-D 08-19-16
Abamectin 08-19-16
Acephate 08-19-16
Atrazine 08-19-16
Azadirachtin 08-19-16
Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) 08-19-16
Bendiocarb 08-19-16
Benefin 08-19-16
Bensulide 08-19-16
Bentazon 08-19-16
Bifenthrin 08-19-16
Bromoxynil 08-19-16
Carbaryl 08-19-16
Carfentrazone-ethyl 08-19-16
Chlorpyrifos 08-19-16
Clopyralid 08-19-16
Clothianidin 08-19-16
Cyfluthrin 08-19-16
Cypermethrin 08-19-16
Deltamethrin 08-19-16
Dicamba 08-19-16
Diclofop-methyl 08-19-16
Dinotefuran 08-19-16
Dithiopyr 08-19-16
DSMA 08-19-16
Ethofumesate 08-19-16
Ethoprop 08-19-16
Fenarimol 08-19-16
Fenoxaprop 08-19-16
Fenoxycarb 08-19-16
Fipronil 08-19-16
Fluazifop 08-19-16
Fluroxypyr 08-19-16
Foramsulfuron 08-19-16
Glyphosate 08-19-16
Halofenozide 08-19-16
Halosulfuron 08-19-16
Hydramethylnon 08-19-16
Imazapic 08-19-16
Imazaquin 08-19-16
Imidacloprid 08-19-16
Indoxacarb 08-19-16
Isoxaben 08-19-16
Lambda-Cyhalothrin 08-19-16
MCPP 08-19-16
Metolachlor 08-19-16
Metribuzin 08-19-16
Metsulfuron 08-19-16
MSMA 08-19-16
Oryzalin 08-19-16
Oxadiazon 08-19-16
Pendimethalin 08-19-16
Permethrin 08-19-16
Prodiamine 08-19-16
Pronamide 08-19-16
Pyriproxyfen 08-19-16
Quinclorac 08-19-16
Rimsulfuron 08-19-16
S-Methoprene 08-19-16
Sethoxydim 08-19-16
Siduron 08-19-16
Simazine 08-19-16
Spinosad 08-19-16
Sulfosulfuron 08-19-16
Trichlorfon 08-19-16
Triclopyr 08-19-16
Trifloxysulfuron-sodium 08-19-16
Trifluralin 08-19-16


Worker Activities JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments

References

Acknowledgments