PMSP for Container and Field-Produced Nursery Crops in FL, GA, KY, NC, SC, TN, and VA: Revision 2015

Source

TypePMSPs
Date12/14/2015
PDFhttps://ipmdata.ipmcenters.org/documents/pmsps/SNIPMnurserycrops2015.pdf
SettingNursery Grown Plants (Container and Field)
StateFlorida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
Contact
ContributorsAmy Fulcher, Anthony LeBude

Settings/Crops



Executive Summary




Background





Priorities

Category Rank Pest Type Pest Crop Stage Date Priority
Extension/Outreach 1 2011 Improved management guidelines for “hard to control” weeds such as; seasonal timing for postemergent (POST) weed control to manage perennial weed pests in nursery borders, field rows and new (e.g., container and pot-in-pot) production areas.
Extension/Outreach 1 All Pest Types 2011 Encourage the support and use of county Extension personnel (serving the green industry) in the dissemination of information.
Extension/Outreach 1 Insects 2011 Develop resources that provide information regarding cultural practices as well as chemical controls with efficacy tables that also include other details such as curative/preventative activity and certain state label restrictions.
Extension/Outreach 1 Pathogens 2011 Monitor the presence and populations of insects and establish action thresholds.
Extension/Outreach 2 2011 Improved monitoring tools, protocols, and educational programs (e.g., improved guides for identifying “emerging weeds of concern”).
Extension/Outreach 2 All Pest Types 2011 Utilize multi state collaboration of university/industry personnel to develop a regional web site/clearing house for compiling and disseminating pest/pest management information.
Extension/Outreach 2 Pathogens 2011 Group scale insects and develop management guidelines for each group.
Extension/Outreach 3 2011 Improved decision-aids for selecting the most appropriate weed management options – (e.g., economic thresholds, efficacy tables, resistance management protocols).
Extension/Outreach 3 All Pest Types 2011 Emphasize use of digital diagnosis through county offices.
Extension/Outreach 3 Pathogens 2011 Emphasize scouting and early detection to be able to act on thresholds.
Extension/Outreach 4 2011 Training leading to development of an overall integrated weed management plan, tailored to each specific production operation, for controlling weeds.
Extension/Outreach 4 All Pest Types 2011 Develop training and certification for scouting (expand to on-line and through distance education).
Extension/Outreach 4 Pathogens 2011 Use oils early when thresholds are reached to avoid using products that might be more expensive, more toxic or both.
Extension/Outreach 5 2011 Education on avoiding crop damage from herbicides.
Extension/Outreach 5 All Pest Types 2011 Develop and make available efficacy tables to include REI and mode of action group.
Extension/Outreach 5 Pathogens 2011 Emphasize the importance of decreasing stress on plants and using appropriate production practices to do so.
Extension/Outreach 6 All Pest Types 2011 Create awareness regarding timing of pesticide application to increase worker protection and effectiveness of chemicals.
Regulatory 1 All Pest Types 2011 Evaluate the sustainability of oak production regarding Sudden Oak Death.
Regulatory 2 All Pest Types 2011 Resolve questions on required quarantined treatments for fire ants and Japanese beetles.
Regulatory 3 All Pest Types 2011 Address use of hydrogen peroxide for water filters.
Regulatory 4 All Pest Types 2011 Address chlorine concerns (Homeland Security).
Regulatory 5 All Pest Types 2011 Numerous water issues (availability, quality, runoff, regulations, etc.)
Regulatory 6 All Pest Types 2011 Identification of ornamental production as an agriculture industry.
Research 1 2011 Biology and ecology of weeds in these unique nursery ecosystems (e.g., environmental and climatic modeling for predicting certain weed seed germination; development and reproduction of common and newly introduced species).
Research 1 All Pest Types 2011 Make IPM profitable and viable for nursery crop production.
Research 1 Insects 2011 Evaluate the efficacy of products applied via chemigation.
Research 1 Pathogens 2011 Improve mite management.
Research 2 2011 A systematic survey of the current state of weeds in nursery production systems across the southeastern United States.
Research 2 All Pest Types 2011 Identify effective treatments for foliar nematodes.
Research 2 Pathogens 2011 Develop thresholds and what products to use to avoid secondary pest outbreaks i.e., potato leafhopper applications increasing mite populations.
Research 3 2011 Greater understanding of herbicide persistence and longevity of control relative to the need for re-applications or other supplemental management (e.g., pairing environmental/climatic models with knowledge of herbicide persistence and efficacy to better time both deployment and re-application of PRE herbicides).
Research 3 All Pest Types 2011 Identify plant phenological indicators of arthropod pest activity.
Research 3 Pathogens 2011 Use of water conditioner for pH.
Research 4 2011 Effectiveness and utility of cultural, physical and mechanical controls such as cover crops and living mulches, physical barriers (e.g., landscape fabric, geotextile, woolpack, hair and coir disks and large bark chip topdressings).
Research 4 All Pest Types 2011 Investigate how to manage arthropod pest complexes rather than individual species.
Research 4 Pathogens 2011 Develop understanding of production practices relationship with pest outbreaks—focus on insect complexes, not on an individual but rather focus on a plant to allow the consolidation of sprays.
Research 5 2011 Accurate cost accounting of weed management systems including labor for hand-weeding and strategies for efficient resource utilization through use of IPM to decrease weed management costs.
Research 5 All Pest Types 2011 Whole systems approaches to pest management.
Research 5 Pathogens 2011 Determine if improved nutrition in the fall will reduce attacks by the flatheaded apple tree borer in field and container-grown plants. (Some growers use 25 ppm K or Mg nitrate late in summer to gradually slow the plants down.
Research 6 2011 Opportunities to achieve efficient weed control with reduced PRE and POST emergence herbicide use, particularly in crops nearing sale date.
Research 6 All Pest Types 2011 Determine cause and treatment of Cryptomeria tip disorder.
Research 6 Pathogens 2011 Timing in pruning.
Research 7 2011 Understanding and avoiding crop injury from herbicide use in nurseries (e.g.: long-term consequences of POST emergence herbicide use such as glyphosate applications via “Enviromist” sprayer technology, or environmental persistence such as herbicide residue effects on seedling germination and liner growth.
Research 7 All Pest Types 2011 Develop more cost effective management of fire ants.
Research 7 Pathogens 2011 Increase chemical efficacy by determining correct surfactants and their rate.
Research 8 2011 Phytotoxicity of both PRE- and POST emergence chemistries on the diverse ornamental crops, with emphasis on new and expanding crop categories (e.g., perennials, ornamental grasses, tropical plants) being grown in the southeastern United States.
Research 8 All Pest Types 2011 Understand glyphosate damage in nursery crops, symptoms, application technology.
Research 8 Pathogens 2011 Improve borer identification technique, distinguish between various borers.
Research 9 2011 Development of new weed control technologies and herbicide formulations, including: chemical mowing / vegetation suppression; strategies and technologies to extend seasonal duration of weed control efficacy (such as: slow-release formulations for PRE herbicides); integration of nutrients, PRE herbicides and/or insecticidal/miticidal chemistries in slow-release formulations; testing, labeling and economics of organic weed control options, oxidizers and novel chemistries for weed control efficacy (e.g., ZeroTol [hydrogen peroxide] or Terracide on liverwort and algae); Improved spray-applied herbicide options for container nurseries; Biological or biorational options for PRE and POST weed control; Selective weed management options.
Research 9 All Pest Types 2011 Determine physiological differences between container and field grown plants with regard to pest susceptibility and pesticide treatments.
Research 9 Pathogens 2011 Determine insect biology, host preference and overwintering host preference and how production practices might affect both.
Research 10 All Pest Types 2011 Develop systemic controls of borer and scale insects.
Research 10 Pathogens 2011 Products that control pests with minimal negative effects on natural enemies and pollinators.
Research 11 All Pest Types 2011 Identify surfactant and penetrate use for insect control in trees.
Research 11 Pathogens 2011 Determine possibilities for management of granulate ambrosia beetle after they enter trees.
Research 12 All Pest Types 2011 Conduct efficacy and cost analysis of generic pesticides.
Research 12 Pathogens 2011 Investigate pesticide efficacy, life history, timing of sprays, trials to show using life history and timing of sprays for Japanese maple scale, white peach scale.
Research 13 All Pest Types 2011 Develop a controlled release preemergence herbicide.
Research 13 Pathogens 2011 Develop thresholds for Japanese beetles.
Research 14 All Pest Types 2011 Determine appropriate timing of pest monitoring, scouting, and pesticide applications for weeds, arthropods, and diseases.
Research 15 All Pest Types 2011 Test efficacy of chemigation techniques- test efficacy of chemicals.
Research 16 All Pest Types 2011 Investigate biology of black root rot.

Production Facts

Production Year
US Rank
% US Acres
Acres Planted
Acres Harvested
Growers
Production
Production Costs/Acre
Natl Avg/Acre
State Avg/Acre
Per Acre Value
Production Value
Price
References

Worker Activities

Production Counties

Production Practices

IPM Practices

Pollinator Protection

Pests


No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

Beneficials

Biological Controls

Cultural Controls

Physical Controls

Chemical Controls

Active Ingredient CAS PC Pests REI (hrs) PHI (days) Description IPM Resistance
Isaria fumosorosea (paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Unknown 115002
Abamectin 71751-41-2 122804
Acephate 30560-19-1 103301
Acequinocyl 57960-19-7 6329
Acetamiprid 135410-20-7 99050
Ametoctradin 865318-97-4 119210
Asulam 3337-71-1 106901
Azadirachtin 108168-76-9 121701
Azoxystrobin 131860-33-8 128810
Bacillus Subtilis 68038-70-0 0
Bacillus Thuringiensis (bt) 0
Beauveria Bassiana (cas reg. no. 63428-82-0 ) 63428-82-0 90305
Benefin 1861-40-1 84301
Bentazon 50723-80-3 275200
Beta-cypermethrin 52315-07-8 109702
Bifenazate 149877-41-8 586
Bifenthrin 83322-02-5 128825
Boscalid 188425-85-6 128008
Buprofezin 69327-76-0 275100
Carbaryl 63-25-2 56801
Chlorantraniliprole 500008-45-7 90100
Chlorfenapyr 122453-73-0 129093
Chlorothalonil 1897-45-6 81901
Chlorpyrifos 2921-88-2 59101
Chromobacterium Subtsugae strain praa4-1 cells and spent fermentation media Unknown 16329
Clethodim 99129-21-2 121011
Clofentezine 74115-24-5 125501
Clopyralid 1702-17-6 117403
Clothianidin 210880-92-5 44309
Copper Hydroxide 20427-59-2 23401
Copper Octanoate 20543-04-8 23306
Copper Sulfate pentahydrate 7758-99-8 24401
Cryolite 15096-52-3 75101
Cyantraniliprole 937279-54-4 90098
Cyazofamid 120116-88-3 85651
Cyflumetofen 400882-07-7 138831
Cyfluthrin 68359-37-5 128831
Cyprodinil 121552-61-2 288202
Deltamethrin 66841-25-6 97805
Dichlobenil 1194-65-6 27401
Dicofol 115-32-2 10501
Dicrotophos 141-66-2 35201
Diflubenzuron 35367-38-5 108201
Dimethenamide-p 163515-14-8 120051
Dimethoate 60-51-5 35001
Dimethomorph 110488-70-5 268800
Dinotefuran 165252-70-0 44312
Dipotassium Phosphonate 0
Diquat Dibromide 85-00-7 32201
Dithiopyr 97886-45-8 128994
Emamectin Benzoate 155569-91-8 122806
Etoxazole 153233-91-1 107091
Etridiazole 2593-15-9 84701
Fenamidone 161326-34-7 46679
Fenarimol 60168-88-9 206600
Fenazaquin 120928-09-8 44501
Fenbutatin-oxide 13556-08-6 104601
Fenhexamid 126833-17-8 90209
Fenoxycarb 79127-80-3 125301
Fenpropathrin 39515-41-8 127901
Fenpyroximate 134098-61-6 129131
Flonicamid 158062-67-0 128016
Fluazifop-p-butyl 79241-46-6 122809
Fludioxonil 131341-86-1 71503
Flumioxazin 141490-50-8 129034
Fluopicolide 239110-15-7 27412
Fluoxastrobin 361377-29-9 28869
Fosetyl-al 39148-24-8 123301
Glufosinate 77182-82-2 128850
Glyphosate 1071-83-6 417300
Hexythiazox 78587-05-0 128849
Hydramethylnon 67485-29-4 118401
Imazalil 35554-44-0 111901
Imidacloprid 138261-41-3 129099
Indaziflam 950782-86-2 80818
Indoxacarb 173584-44-6 67710
Iprodione 36734-19-7 109801
Isaria Formosorosea 0
Isoxaben 82558-50-7 125851
Kresoxim-methyl 143390-89-0 129111
Lambda-cyhalothrin 91465-08-6 128897
Malathion (no Inert use) 121-75-5 57701
Mancozeb 8018-01-7 14504
Mandipropamide Technical 374726-62-2 36602
Mefenoxam 70630-17-0 113502
Metaflumizone 139968-49-3 281250
Metconazole 125116-23-6 125619
Methidathion 950-37-8 100301
Methiocarb 2032-65-7 100501
Methoxyfenozide 161050-58-4 121027
Milbemectin (use Pc code 090105) 51596-11-3 90103
Mono- And di- potassium salts of phosphorous acid 13977-65-6 76416
Myclobutanil 88671-89-0 128857
Napropamide 15299-99-7 103001
Neem Oil tgai 8002-65-1 25006
Novaluron 116714-46-6 124002
Oils, Horticultural 0
Orthene 30560-19-1 103301
Oryzalin 19044-88-3 104201
Oxadiazon 19666-30-9 109001
Oxydemeton-methyl 301-12-2 58702
Oxyfluorfen 42874-03-3 111601
Paraquat 4685-14-7 61603
Pcnb (= Pentachloronitrobenzene) 2593-15-9 56502
Pelargonic Acid 112-05-0 217500
Pendimethalin 40487-42-1 108501
Permethrin 52645-53-1 109701
Phosphorous Acid 10294-56-1 76002
Piperalin 3478-94-2 97003
Piperonyl Butoxide 51-03-6 67501
Polyoxin D zinc salt 146659-78-1 230000
Potassium Bicarbonate 298-14-6 73508
Potassium Phosphate 0
Prodiamine 29091-21-2 110201
Propiconazole 60207-90-1 122101
Pymetrozine 123312-89-0 101103
Pyraclostrobin 175013-18-0 99100
Pyrethrins 8003-34-7 69001
Pyridaben 96489-71-3 129105
Pyridalyl 179101-81-6 295149
Pyrifluquinazon 337458-27-2 555555
Pyriproxyfen 95737-68-1 129032
S-kinoprene 65733-20-2 107502
S-methoprene 65733-16-6 105402
S-metolachlor 87392-12-9 108800
Sethoxydim 74051-80-2 121001
Simazine 39312-80-6 80807
Sodium Tetraborate decahydrate (na2b4o7.10h2o) 1303-96-4 11102
Spinetoram (amixture Of spinetoram-j and spinetoram-l) 935545-74-7 110007
Spinosad 168316-95-8 110003
Spiromesifen 283594-90-1 24875
Spirotetramat 0
Streptomycin 57-92-1 6306
Sulfoxaflor 946578-00-3 5210
Tau-fluvalinate 102851-06-9 109302
Tebuconazole 107534-96-3 128997
Tebufenozide 112410-23-8 129026
Thiamethoxam 153719-23-4 60109
Thiophanate-methyl 23564-05-8 102001
Tolfenpyrad 129558-76-5 90111
Triadimefon 43121-43-3 109901
Tribasic Copper sulfate ( cu4(oh)6(so4) ) 8011-63-0 8101
Trichlorfon 52-68-6 57901
Trifloxystrobin 141517-21-7 129112
Triflumizole 68694-11-1 128879
Trifluralin 1582-09-8 36101
Triticonazole 131983-72-7 125620

Efficacy

Pest Active Ingredient PC Code CAS Efficacy Code Comments
Efficacy Codes
UUnknown
EExcellent, 90-100%
GGood, 80-90%
FFair, 60-80%
PPoor, 25-60%
NCNo Control, <25%
G-EGood to Excellent, 80-100%
F-EFair to Excellent, 50-100%
P-EPoor to Excellent, 25-100%
F-GFair to Good, 50-90%
P-GPoor to Good, 25-90%
P-FPoor to Fair, 25-80%
NUNot Used
RRarely Used

Resistance Management

Toxicity


Timelines


Production Practices JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Pests JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Stages JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Chemicals JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments
Isaria Fumosorosea (Paecilomyces Fumosoroseus) 08-16-16
Abamectin 08-16-16
Acephate 08-16-16
Acequinocyl 08-16-16
Acetamiprid 08-16-16
Ametoctradin 08-16-16
Asulam 08-16-16
Azadirachtin 08-16-16
Azoxystrobin 08-16-16
Bacillus Subtilis 08-16-16
Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) 08-16-16
Beauveria Bassiana (CAS Reg. No. 63428-82-0 ) 08-16-16
Benefin 08-16-16
Bentazon 08-16-16
Beta-cypermethrin 08-16-16
Bifenazate 08-16-16
Bifenthrin 08-16-16
Boscalid 08-16-16
Buprofezin 08-16-16
Carbaryl 08-16-16
Chlorantraniliprole 08-16-16
Chlorfenapyr 08-16-16
Chlorothalonil 08-16-16
Chlorpyrifos 08-16-16
Chromobacterium Subtsugae Strain PRAA4-1 Cells And Spent Fermentation Media 08-16-16
Clethodim 08-16-16
Clofentezine 08-16-16
Clopyralid 08-16-16
Clothianidin 08-16-16
Copper Hydroxide 08-16-16
Copper Octanoate 08-16-16
Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate 08-16-16
Cryolite 08-16-16
Cyantraniliprole 08-16-16
Cyazofamid 08-16-16
Cyflumetofen 08-16-16
Cyfluthrin 08-16-16
Cyprodinil 08-16-16
Deltamethrin 08-16-16
Dichlobenil 08-16-16
Dicofol 08-16-16
Dicrotophos 08-16-16
Diflubenzuron 08-16-16
Dimethenamide-P 08-16-16
Dimethoate 08-16-16
Dimethomorph 08-16-16
Dinotefuran 08-16-16
Dipotassium Phosphonate 08-16-16
Diquat Dibromide 08-16-16
Dithiopyr 08-16-16
Emamectin Benzoate 08-16-16
Etoxazole 08-16-16
Etridiazole 08-16-16
Fenamidone 08-16-16
Fenarimol 08-16-16
Fenazaquin 08-16-16
Fenbutatin-oxide 08-16-16
Fenhexamid 08-16-16
Fenoxycarb 08-16-16
Fenpropathrin 08-16-16
Fenpyroximate 08-16-16
Flonicamid 08-16-16
Fluazifop-P-butyl 08-16-16
Fludioxonil 08-16-16
Flumioxazin 08-16-16
Fluopicolide 08-16-16
Fluoxastrobin 08-16-16
Fosetyl-Al 08-16-16
Glufosinate 08-16-16
Glyphosate 08-16-16
Hexythiazox 08-16-16
Hydramethylnon 08-16-16
Imazalil 08-16-16
Imidacloprid 08-16-16
Indaziflam 08-16-16
Indoxacarb 08-16-16
Iprodione 08-16-16
Isaria Formosorosea 08-16-16
Isoxaben 08-16-16
Kresoxim-methyl 08-16-16
Lambda-Cyhalothrin 08-16-16
Malathion (NO INERT USE) 08-16-16
Mancozeb 08-16-16
Mandipropamide Technical 08-16-16
Mefenoxam 08-16-16
Metaflumizone 08-16-16
Metconazole 08-16-16
Methidathion 08-16-16
Methiocarb 08-16-16
Methoxyfenozide 08-16-16
Milbemectin (Use Pc Code 090105) 08-16-16
Mono- And Di- Potassium Salts Of Phosphorous Acid 08-16-16
Myclobutanil 08-16-16
Napropamide 08-16-16
Neem Oil TGAI 08-16-16
Novaluron 08-16-16
Oils, Horticultural 08-16-16
Orthene 08-16-16
Oryzalin 08-16-16
Oxadiazon 08-16-16
Oxydemeton-methyl 08-16-16
Oxyfluorfen 08-16-16
Paraquat 08-16-16
PCNB (= Pentachloronitrobenzene) 08-16-16
Pelargonic Acid 08-16-16
Pendimethalin 08-16-16
Permethrin 08-16-16
Phosphorous Acid 08-16-16
Piperalin 08-16-16
Piperonyl Butoxide 08-16-16
Polyoxin D Zinc Salt 08-16-16
Potassium Bicarbonate 08-16-16
Potassium Phosphate 08-16-16
Prodiamine 08-16-16
Propiconazole 08-16-16
Pymetrozine 08-16-16
Pyraclostrobin 08-16-16
Pyrethrins 08-16-16
Pyridaben 08-16-16
Pyridalyl 08-16-16
Pyrifluquinazon 08-16-16
Pyriproxyfen 08-16-16
S-Kinoprene 08-16-16
S-Methoprene 08-16-16
S-Metolachlor 08-16-16
Sethoxydim 08-16-16
Simazine 08-16-16
Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate (Na2B4O7.10H2O) 08-16-16
Spinetoram (amixture Of Spinetoram-J And Spinetoram-L) 08-16-16
Spinosad 08-16-16
Spiromesifen 08-16-16
Spirotetramat 08-16-16
Streptomycin 08-16-16
Sulfoxaflor 08-16-16
Tau-fluvalinate 08-16-16
Tebuconazole 08-16-16
Tebufenozide 08-16-16
Thiamethoxam 08-16-16
Thiophanate-methyl 08-16-16
Tolfenpyrad 08-16-16
Triadimefon 08-16-16
Tribasic Copper Sulfate ( Cu4(OH)6(SO4) ) 08-16-16
Trichlorfon 08-16-16
Trifloxystrobin 08-16-16
Triflumizole 08-16-16
Trifluralin 08-16-16
Triticonazole 08-16-16


Worker Activities JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments

References

Acknowledgments