PMSP for Dry Bulb Storage Onions in the United States

Source

TypePMSPs
Date02/12/2013
PDFhttps://ipmdata.ipmcenters.org/documents/pmsps/USonionPMSP.pdf
SettingOnion, Onion, Bulb
StateAlaska, Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Canada, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming
Contact
Contributors

Settings/Crops



Executive Summary




Background





Priorities

Category Rank Pest Type Pest Crop Stage Date Priority
Extension/Outreach 1 Planting through Emergence 2013 Develop Extension publications that highlight the latest nematode research.
Extension/Outreach 1 Pre-Plant 2013 Promote pre-plant soil testing for nematodes.
Extension/Outreach 1 Vegetative Growth 2013 Educate growers on the risks/benefits of herbicide applications (i.e., damage from the weeds vs. damage to the onions).
Extension/Outreach 1 All Pest Types 2013 Communicate to consumers and regulators that onion growers practice IPM; explain which practices are being used.
Extension/Outreach 1 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Educate growers about definition of lifting and harvest and how each relates to PHI.
Extension/Outreach 1 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Educate regulators on the specific disease control needs in onion production.
Extension/Outreach 1 Insects Pre-Plant 2013 Educate growers about the use of soil testing and economic thresholds.
Extension/Outreach 1 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Provide risk assessment data to EPA for reregistration purposes.
Extension/Outreach 1 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Educate growers about definition of lifting and harvest and how each relates to PHI.
Extension/Outreach 1 Pathogens Planting through Emergence 2013 Educate regulators on the need for a speedy registration process.
Extension/Outreach 1 Pathogens Pre-Plant 2013 Invite EPA to visit onion fields in the western states to observe production practices and pest problems.
Extension/Outreach 1 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Educate growers and crop consultants about checking for thrips populations relative to time of day.
Extension/Outreach 2 Planting through Emergence 2013 Organize informational meetings for onion growers about nematodes’ biology, ecology, and management.
Extension/Outreach 2 Pre-Plant 2013 Develop an Extension publication about the biology, ecology, and management of nematodes in onion production.
Extension/Outreach 2 All Pest Types 2013 Educate regulators about onion crop production operations and pest management practices, which will help them better understand the pest management needs in onions.
Extension/Outreach 2 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Educate EPA and regulators about harvest and pre-harvest activities (lifting, curing, removal from the field) and the length of time involved.
Extension/Outreach 2 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Promote IPM and pest alerts to growers.
Extension/Outreach 2 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Educate EPA and regulators about harvest and pre-harvest activities (lifting, curing, removal from the field) and the length of time involved.
Extension/Outreach 2 Pathogens Planting through Emergence 2013 Invite EPA to visit onion fields in the western states to observe production practices and pest problems.
Extension/Outreach 2 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Educate growers and crop consultants about the difference between 2ee states and the implications.
Extension/Outreach 3 Planting through Emergence 2013 Increase grower awareness about nematode quarantine in onions.
Extension/Outreach 3 All Pest Types 2013 Promote more interstate exchange of information, expertise, and personnel at the industry, university, and state agency levels.
Extension/Outreach 3 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Invite EPA to visit onion fields in the western states to observe production practices and pest problems.
Extension/Outreach 3 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Organize field tours with EPA to illustrate pest management needs.
Extension/Outreach 3 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Invite EPA to visit onion fields in the western states to observe production practices and pest problems.
Extension/Outreach 3 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Educate growers on importance of resistance management.
Extension/Outreach 4 All Pest Types 2013 Educate regulators about the importance of EBDC fungicides to onion production and why it is important to maintain their registration.
Extension/Outreach 4 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Develop disease modeling/forecasting for Washington and integrate with regional pest reporting networks.
Extension/Outreach 4 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Demonstrate to growers and crop consultants the diagnostic tools for identifying thrips species in the field.
Extension/Outreach 5 All Pest Types 2013 Organize onion field tours for regulators and policy makers to show them the field operations used in onion production and to demonstrate why some current pest management strategies are not working.
Extension/Outreach 5 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Invite EPA to visit onion fields in the western states to observe production practices and pest problems.
Extension/Outreach 6 All Pest Types 2013 Maintain or increase funding for Extension and research programs at land-grant universities; recent budgetary cutbacks and personnel layoffs threaten the viability of IPM implementation and research. Methods of dispersal of information between publicly funded agencies and the onion industry are slowly disappearin
Regulatory 1 Planting through Emergence 2013 Enforce and strengthen the nematode quarantine program.
Regulatory 1 Planting through Emergence 2013 Expedite registration of ethofumesate (Nortron).
Regulatory 1 Pre-Plant 2013 Maintain registration of fumigants.
Regulatory 1 Pre-Plant 2013 Register Inline, the drip irrigation formulation of dichloropropene + chloropicrin.
Regulatory 1 Vegetative Growth 2013 Register bentazon (Basagran) for yellow nutsedge control.
Regulatory 1 All Pest Types 2013 Encourage EPA to expedite the registration of current pesticide petitions for acibenzolar (Actigard) for iris yellow spot virus and bacterial disease control and the herbicides bentazon (Basagran), dimethenamid (Outlook), ethofumesate (Nortron), flumioxazin (Valor), and fluroxypyr (Starane) for weed control.
Regulatory 1 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Work with EPA to change their definition of harvest. “Harvest” is when the onions are removed from the field; current EPA definition of harvest is actually what growers define as “lifting.” This is a critical issue because the definition of harvest determines PHI and, thus, which pesticides can be used when the onions are reaching maturity.
Regulatory 1 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Expedite new pesticide registrations for disease control at planting.
Regulatory 1 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Expedite registration of acibenzolar (Actigard) through the IR-4 program.
Regulatory 1 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Work with EPA to change their definition of harvest. “Harvest” is when the onions are removed from the field; current EPA definition of harvest is actually what growers define as “lifting.” This is a critical issue because the definition of harvest determines PHI and, thus, which pesticides can be used when the onions are reaching maturity.
Regulatory 1 Pathogens Planting through Emergence 2013 Expedite registration of fipronil for onion maggot control.
Regulatory 1 Pathogens Planting through Emergence 2013 Expedite registration of fipronil for onion maggot control.
Regulatory 1 Pathogens Pre-Plant 2013 Registration of alternative products such as fipronil seed treatment for control of maggots, cyfluthrin + tebupirimphos (Aztec) for control of wireworms
Regulatory 1 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Pursue 2ee for some of the insecticides: need standardized use across the western states to control pests not on labels.
Regulatory 2 Planting through Emergence 2013 Explore the possibility of registering propachlor (Ramrod) in onions.
Regulatory 2 Pre-Plant 2013 Expedite the registration of methyl iodide (iodomethane/Midas).
Regulatory 2 Pre-Plant 2013 Expand the use of soil fumigants.
Regulatory 2 Vegetative Growth 2013 Expedite registration of dimethenamid (Outlook), flumioxazin (Valor), ethofumesate (Nortron), and fluroxypyr (Starane).
Regulatory 2 All Pest Types 2013 Establish a tracking system for new pesticide registrations indicating stage of the registration process, enabling growers and commodity representatives to provide input where needed.
Regulatory 2 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Develop uniform protocol for phytosanitary requirements related to various pests.
Regulatory 2 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Continue the white rot control order for Idaho and for Malheur County, Oregon.
Regulatory 2 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Support the continued registration of EBDC fungicides.
Regulatory 2 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Develop uniform protocol for phytosanitary requirements related to various pests.
Regulatory 2 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Ensure that chemical companies develop, and EPA register, new products with resistance management in mind.
Regulatory 3 Pre-Plant 2013 Expedite methyl iodide (iodomethane, Midas) registration.
Regulatory 3 Pre-Plant 2013 Begin the process for registration of fosthiazate; work with IR-4.
Regulatory 3 All Pest Types 2013 Work with EPA to change their definition of harvest. Harvest is when the onions are removed from the field; current EPA definition of harvest is actually what growers define as “lifting.” This is a critical issue because the definition of harvest determines PHI and, thus, which pesticides can be used when the onions are reaching maturity.
Regulatory 3 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Continue the cull disposal order for Idaho and for Malheur County, Oregon.
Regulatory 3 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Expedite registration of spinosad for control of thrips.
Regulatory 4 All Pest Types 2013 Support the continued registration of EBDC fungicides.
Regulatory 5 All Pest Types 2013 Develop a viable system for inspecting imported onions for problem pests (e.g., thrips) and for illegal pesticide residues.
Regulatory 6 All Pest Types 2013 Be consistent in 2ee labels for all Western states growing onions.
Research 1 Planting through Emergence 2013 Identify replacements for DCPA (Dacthal).
Research 1 Planting through Emergence 2013 Research nematode interaction with other soilborne pathogens.
Research 1 Pre-Plant 2013 Develop a better understanding of the effects of fumigation on weed propagules (esp. nutsedge, quackgrass, Canada thistle, field bindweed).
Research 1 Pre-Plant 2013 Determine the effect of a green manure crop on nematode populations and impact on onions.
Research 1 Vegetative Growth 2013 Research post-emergence yellow nutsedge control.
Research 1 All Pest Types 2013 Investigate biology, ecology, and management of iris yellow spot virus.
Research 1 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Evaluate new fungicides as in-furrow and seed treatments for control of damping off complex and white rot diseases.
Research 1 Insects Pre-Plant 2013 Develop a protocol to test soils for soilborne organisms.
Research 1 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Determine efficacy of disinfectants for management of the bacterial diseases.
Research 1 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Research suppression of thrips damage on red onions (sugary scale)
Research 1 Pathogens Planting through Emergence 2013 Research chemical, cultural, and biological controls for onion and seed corn maggot.
Research 1 Pathogens Pre-Plant 2013 Identify the impacts of IPM and cultural practices on bulb mites.
Research 1 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Screen new chemistries for thrips (seed, in-furrow, and foliar treatments).
Research 2 Planting through Emergence 2013 Identify more effective pre-emergence herbicides.
Research 2 Planting through Emergence 2013 Explore efficacy of non-fumigant nematicides.
Research 2 Pre-Plant 2013 Determine efficacy of other pre-plant herbicide applications for nutsedge control, e.g., fall-applied metolachlor (Dual), fallow-applied EPTC (Eptam).
Research 2 Pre-Plant 2013 Investigate efficacy of rapeseed meal as a soil amendment for nematode control.
Research 2 Vegetative Growth 2013 Research volunteer potato management.
Research 2 All Pest Types 2013 Investigate biology, ecology, and management of yellow nutsedge specific to onion production.
Research 2 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Further research efficacy of ozone generators for control of diseases during storage.
Research 2 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Evaluate biopesticides for damping off complex and white rot diseases.
Research 2 Insects Pre-Plant 2013 Establish economic impact thresholds for soilborne insects to aid in IPM decisions.
Research 2 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Develop new chemistry and alternative chemistry, such as acibenzolar (Actigard), and determine efficacy for the bacterial diseases.
Research 2 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Further research efficacy of ozone generators for control of thrips during storage.
Research 2 Pathogens Planting through Emergence 2013 Identify systemic insecticides (applied at planting) that might be efficacious for onion and western flower thrips.
Research 2 Pathogens Pre-Plant 2013 Determine the effects of green manure crops on insect pests found in the soil prior to planting.
Research 2 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Evaluate thrips suppression treatments (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) to reduce iris yellow spot virus potential.
Research 3 Planting through Emergence 2013 Determine efficacy and crop safety of dimethenamid-P (Outlook) when applied as a pre-emergence herbicide.
Research 3 Planting through Emergence 2013 Explore efficacy of seed treated with nematicides.
Research 3 Pre-Plant 2013 Develop a better understanding of the effects of green manure crops on weed propagules.
Research 3 Pre-Plant 2013 Determine the impact of micro nutrient applications on nematodes.
Research 3 Vegetative Growth 2013 Find additional post-emergence herbicides with different modes of action.
Research 3 All Pest Types 2013 Identify effective control measures for onion thrips and western flower thrips.
Research 3 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Research control of neck rot
Research 3 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Research on the biology and ecology of iris yellow spot virus.
Research 3 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Identify effective fungicides for control of Botrytis neck rot disease (caused by Botrytis allii).
Research 3 Pathogens Pre-Plant 2013 Develop a prediction model for potential for maggot damage.
Research 3 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Develop thrips-resistant cultivars.
Research 4 Planting through Emergence 2013 Investigate impact of green manure crops, mustard and rapeseed meal, and soil fertilizer on nematode populations.
Research 4 Pre-Plant 2013 Determine the effects of crop rotation systems on weed control
Research 4 Pre-Plant 2013 Develop nematode-resistant onion cultivars.
Research 4 Vegetative Growth 2013 Find herbicides or other techniques for dodder control.
Research 4 All Pest Types 2013 Screen new insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides with different modes of action for efficacy and resistance management.
Research 4 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Investigate efficacy of treating storage areas for plant pathogen management (black mold, Botrytis).
Research 4 Insects Planting through Emergence 2013 Further investigate the importance and management of seedborne diseases.
Research 4 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Develop resistance management strategies for all diseases.
Research 4 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Investigate efficacy of treating storage areas for thrips control
Research 4 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Investigate weed hosts as overwintering sites for thrips.
Research 5 Planting through Emergence 2013 Develop nematode-resistant onion cultivars.
Research 5 Pre-Plant 2013 Refine rate and application method of metam sodium soil fumigant.
Research 5 Vegetative Growth 2013 Investigate effect of early-season, post-emergence weed control on onion quality.
Research 5 All Pest Types 2013 Identify new control measures for neck rot caused by Botrytis and develop a better understanding of the biology and ecology of the disease.
Research 5 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Explore alternative uses for cull onions.
Research 5 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Research the general biology, transmission vectors, and alternative hosts for iris yellow spot virus.
Research 5 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Explore alternative uses for cull onions.
Research 5 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Investigate weed hosts as overwintering sites for thrips.
Research 6 Planting through Emergence 2013 Evaluate the impact of sodium methyldithiocarbamate (Metam Sodium) on nematode control.
Research 6 Pre-Plant 2013 Determine efficacy and rate of granular fumigant dazomet (Basamid).
Research 6 Vegetative Growth 2013 Research herbicides or other techniques for late-season weed management.
Research 6 All Pest Types 2013 Identify new control measures for onion maggot and seed corn maggot.
Research 6 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Investigate translucent scale of onions in storage (an abiotic condition).
Research 6 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Research biopesticides including new alternatives such as bacteriophages.
Research 6 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Determine which species of thrips is being affected by pesticide application; time of day of the application and of the evaluation may be critical.
Research 7 Pre-Plant 2013 Determine the interaction of nematodes with soilborne diseases.
Research 7 All Pest Types 2013 Maintain or increase funding for Extension and research programs at land-grant universities; recent budgetary cutbacks and personnel layoffs threaten the viability of IPM research.
Research 7 Insects Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Develop more rapid and effective diagnostic tests to quantify pest incidence in bulb onions.
Research 7 Insects Vegetative Growth 2013 Develop disease-resistant cultivars.
Research 7 Pathogens Lifting/Harvest/Storage 2013 Develop more rapid and effective diagnostic tests to quantify pest incidence in bulb onions.
Research 7 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Evaluate rotational strategies of new pesticides and how they might fit IPM and entire cropping system.
Research 8 Pre-Plant 2013 Determine the impact of lesion nematode on onions in the western United States.
Research 8 Pathogens Vegetative Growth 2013 Evaluate effectiveness of aerobic compost tea for thrips control.
Research 9 Pre-Plant 2013 Refine use pattern and rate of methyl iodide (iodomethane, Midas) and fosthiazate.

Production Facts

Production Year
US Rank
% US Acres
Acres Planted
Acres Harvested
Growers
Production
Production Costs/Acre
Natl Avg/Acre
State Avg/Acre
Per Acre Value
Production Value
Price
References

Worker Activities

Production Counties

Production Practices

IPM Practices

Pollinator Protection

Pests


No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

Beneficials

Biological Controls

Cultural Controls

Physical Controls

Chemical Controls

Active Ingredient CAS PC Pests REI (hrs) PHI (days) Description IPM Resistance

Efficacy

Pest Active Ingredient PC Code CAS Efficacy Code Comments
Efficacy Codes
UUnknown
EExcellent, 90-100%
GGood, 80-90%
FFair, 60-80%
PPoor, 25-60%
NCNo Control, <25%
G-EGood to Excellent, 80-100%
F-EFair to Excellent, 50-100%
P-EPoor to Excellent, 25-100%
F-GFair to Good, 50-90%
P-GPoor to Good, 25-90%
P-FPoor to Fair, 25-80%
NUNot Used
RRarely Used

Resistance Management

Toxicity


Timelines


Production Practices JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Pests JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Stages JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Chemicals JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Worker Activities JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments

References

Acknowledgments