Eastern Peach Pest Management Strategies for Adapting to Changing Management Options

Source

TypePMSPs
Date12/12/2000
PDFhttps://ipmdata.ipmcenters.org/documents/pmsps/easternpeach.pdf
SettingPeach
StateFlorida, Georgia, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, South Carolina
Contact
Contributors

Settings/Crops



Executive Summary




Background





Priorities

Category Rank Pest Type Pest Crop Stage Date Priority
Extension/Outreach 1 All Pest Types 2000 Integrated Orchard Management (IOM and its pest management components) carry considerable management costs that are seldom given due weight for high-value commodities such as peaches. Growers, especially processing growers, need orchard consultants to successfully implement increasingly complex pest management options. The economics of pest management must be re-examined in light of its non-farm benefits to society in order to sustain a badly need cadre of pest management consultants. Integrated Orchard Management is a key element of both worker safety and environmental stewardship.
Extension/Outreach 2 All Pest Types 2000 Best management practices for mitigating in-orchard spread of virus and other systemic tree diseases has become an industry priority.
Regulatory 1 All Pest Types 2000 Peaches are highly dependent on hand labor. Step-wise, acute and cumulative, in-orchard quantification of worker exposure to key pesticides is needed for all key activities.
Regulatory 2 All Pest Types 2000 Regulatory decisions on re-entry intervals (REIs) need to recognize the need to conduct field essential activities and such decisions should take into effect cost/benefits considerations.
Regulatory 3 All Pest Types 2000 Regulatory decisions on OPs have extended preharvest intervals (PHIs). However the need to for late season insect control and the effects on IPM programs with longer PHIs needs to be fully considered in regulatory decisions and in the evaluation of mitigation options
Regulatory 4 All Pest Types 2000 American produce growers, including peach growers, should receive assurance that foreign producers will be held to U.S. standards for pesticide labels. Tolerances should not allow foreign competitors unfair advantages.
Regulatory 5 All Pest Types 2000 Resistance management is a key concern with orchard pests. Rotating pesticides to expose pests to varied modes-of-action is the most feasible management option. Regulatory decisions should thoroughly consider resistance management concerns. It is imperative to maintain multiple modes-of-action for use against key pests.
Regulatory 6 All Pest Types 2000 Critical point analysis (HACCP) for both microbial and pesticide residue risks is badly needed to model risks from harvest through shipment.
Regulatory 7 All Pest Types 2000 Region-wide virus and phytoplasma tree-health programs are needed to mitigate potential spread of plum pox virus (PPV) and reduce the incidence on less catastrophic, endemic viruses. Nursery certification and elimination of non-certified stocks is an industry priority.
Research 1 All Pest Types 2000 Re-inventing eastern peach IPM must first focus on pest biology for peach pests: insects, mites, diseases, nematodes and weeds, along with their complements of natural enemies, to develop a currently lacking, prerequisite knowledge base. Improved understanding of biology is needed to form the foundation for creating biologically-refined monitoring and predictive tools for key peach pests.
Research 2 All Pest Types 2000 Plum curculio (PC) in the Southeast and Oriental fruit moth (OFM) in the mid- Atlantic and upper mid-West are the key fruit insect pests. Even the modest reduction in organophosphate achieved to date, have facilitated observable elevations in the pest status of both PC and OFM in those areas where they are presently subordinate pests. Pest biology and behavior studies for PC and OFM are key prerequisites to development of more evolved IPM options.
Research 3 All Pest Types 2000 Low risk insecticides that do not promote scale problems are badly needed for stink bugs and opportunistic fruit pests. Stink bugs and tarnished plant bugs in particular are a concern. These pests damage fruit and they can be important mechanical vectors of brown rot.
Research 4 All Pest Types 2000 Scale, primarily San Jose and white peach, have become damaging primary pests. This elevation in pest status is attributable to changes in pesticide availability. Research should focus on scale biology and model development to improve timing of insecticide applications.
Research 5 All Pest Types 2000 Beetles (Japanese, green June, rose chafers & white fringed) are occasionally very difficult to control. Research needs need to include these occasional but highly problematic pests
Research 6 All Pest Types 2000 Efficacy trials of lower-risk insecticides and biorational controls must be conducted. Impacts on key, secondary and induced pests; beneficials; and “new” pests must be carefully studied. Promising options must be incorporated into existing commercial practice.
Research 6 All Pest Types 2000 Brown rot is the East’s key fruit rot of peach. De-methylation inhibitor (DMI)- based control programs are excellent, but the brown rot organism readily develops fungicide resistance. A fuller understanding of the pathogen’s biology and epidemiology is needed to improve timing of sprays and develop prudent resistance management strategies.
Research 7 All Pest Types 2000 At present, some 20% of the bearing peach acreage is planted to cultivars susceptible to bacterial spot. Chemical control is solely dependent on materialsthat face regulatory scrutiny. Pesticide resistance is a major concern. Host plant resistance is important and is being used. However, all but the most resistant cultivars need supplemental chemical control when pest pressure is high. A better understanding of pest biology and examination of lower-risk control options are essential.
Research 8 All Pest Types 2000 Research is needed to determine optimal weed-free intervals for early-, midand late-season peaches. In-row cover crops must be evaluated as a potential means of reducing herbicide use and controlling weeds during at least part of the annual production cycle. New herbicides must be evaluated as potential replacements, especially for simazine and 2,4-D.
Research 9 All Pest Types 2000 Research on nematode control must focus on pest biology, resistant rootstocks and cultural controls. More environmentally favorable alternatives to methyl bromide are badly needed, especially in the tree nurseries

Production Facts

Production Year
US Rank
% US Acres
Acres Planted
Acres Harvested
Growers
Production
Production Costs/Acre
Natl Avg/Acre
State Avg/Acre
Per Acre Value
Production Value
Price
References

Worker Activities

Production Counties

Production Practices

IPM Practices

Pollinator Protection

Pests


No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

No Data

Beneficials

Biological Controls

Cultural Controls

Physical Controls

Chemical Controls

Active Ingredient CAS PC Pests REI (hrs) PHI (days) Description IPM Resistance
1,3-dichloropropene 542-75-6 29001
2,4-d 0
Abamectin 71751-41-2 122804
Azadirachtin 108168-76-9 121701
Azinphos-methyl 86-50-0 58001
Azoxystrobin 131860-33-8 128810
Bacillus Subtilis 68038-70-0 0
Bas 500f (company Code name) 175013-18-0 99100
Benomyl 17804-35-2 99101
Captan 133-06-2 81301
Carbaryl 63-25-2 56801
Chlorothalonil 1897-45-6 81901
Chlorpyrifos 2921-88-2 59101
Clofentezine 74115-24-5 125501
Clopyralid 1702-17-6 117403
Copper 0
Diazinon 59928-80-2 57801
Diflubenzuron 35367-38-5 108201
Diuron 330-54-1 35505
Emamectin Benzoate 155569-91-8 122806
Endosulfan 115-29-7 79401
Esfenvalerate 66323-04-4 109303
Fenamiphos 22224-92-6 100601
Fenbuconazole 119611-00-6 129011
Fenbutatin-oxide 13556-08-6 104601
Fenhexamid 126833-17-8 90209
Fluazifop 69806-50-4 122805
Fludioxonil 131341-86-1 71503
Flumioxazin 141490-50-8 129034
Fluroxypyr 69377-81-7 128959
Formetanate 22259-30-9 465200
Glyphosate 1071-83-6 417300
Halosulfuron-methyl 100784-20-1 128721
Imidacloprid 138261-41-3 129099
Indoxacarb 173584-44-6 67710
Iprodione 36734-19-7 109801
Kaolin Clay 1332-58-7 100104
Metam-sodium 137-42-8 39003
Methidathion 950-37-8 100301
Methomyl 27519-02-4 90301
Methoxyfenozide 161050-58-4 121027
Methyl Bromide (no inert use) 74-83-9 53201
Milbemectin (use Pc code 090105) 51596-11-3 90103
Myclobutanil 88671-89-0 128857
Norflurazon 27314-13-2 105801
Oryzalin 19044-88-3 104201
Oxadiargyl Unknown 109002
Oxyfluorfen 42874-03-3 111601
Oxytetracycline 79-57-2 6304
Paraquat 4685-14-7 61603
Pendimethalin 40487-42-1 108501
Permethrin 52645-53-1 109701
Phosmet 732-11-6 59201
Pirimicarb 23103-98-2 106101
Pronamide 23950-58-5 101701
Propiconazole 60207-90-1 122101
Pyridaben 96489-71-3 129105
Pyriproxyfen 95737-68-1 129032
Savey 78587-05-0 128849
Sethoxydim 74051-80-2 121001
Simazine 39312-80-6 80807
Spinosad 168316-95-8 110003
Sulfur 7704-34-9 77501
Tebuconazole 107534-96-3 128997
Tebufenozide 112410-23-8 129026
Thiacloprid 111988-49-9 14019
Thiamethoxam 153719-23-4 60109
Thiazopyr 117718-60-2 129100
Thiophanate-methyl 23564-05-8 102001
Tifloxystrobin 0
Triazamate 112143-82-5 128100
Vanguard 60207-31-0 128882
Zinc Phosphide (zn3p2) 1314-84-7 88601

Efficacy

Pest Active Ingredient PC Code CAS Efficacy Code Comments
Efficacy Codes
UUnknown
EExcellent, 90-100%
GGood, 80-90%
FFair, 60-80%
PPoor, 25-60%
NCNo Control, <25%
G-EGood to Excellent, 80-100%
F-EFair to Excellent, 50-100%
P-EPoor to Excellent, 25-100%
F-GFair to Good, 50-90%
P-GPoor to Good, 25-90%
P-FPoor to Fair, 25-80%
NUNot Used
RRarely Used

Resistance Management

Toxicity


Timelines


Production Practices JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Pests JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Stages JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments


Chemicals JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments
1,3-Dichloropropene 08-15-16
2,4-D 08-15-16
Abamectin 08-15-16
Azadirachtin 08-15-16
Azinphos-Methyl 08-15-16
Azoxystrobin 08-15-16
Bacillus Subtilis 08-15-16
BAS 500F (Company Code Name) 08-15-16
Benomyl 08-15-16
Captan 08-15-16
Carbaryl 08-15-16
Chlorothalonil 08-15-16
Chlorpyrifos 08-15-16
Clofentezine 08-15-16
Clopyralid 08-15-16
Copper 08-15-16
Diazinon 08-15-16
Diflubenzuron 08-15-16
Diuron 08-15-16
Emamectin Benzoate 08-15-16
Endosulfan 08-15-16
Esfenvalerate 08-15-16
Fenamiphos 08-15-16
Fenbuconazole 08-15-16
Fenbutatin-oxide 08-15-16
Fenhexamid 08-15-16
Fluazifop 08-15-16
Fludioxonil 08-15-16
Flumioxazin 08-15-16
Fluroxypyr 08-15-16
Formetanate 08-15-16
Glyphosate 08-15-16
Halosulfuron-methyl 08-15-16
Imidacloprid 08-15-16
Indoxacarb 08-15-16
Iprodione 08-15-16
Kaolin Clay 08-15-16
Metam-sodium 08-15-16
Methidathion 08-15-16
Methomyl 08-15-16
Methoxyfenozide 08-15-16
Methyl Bromide (NO INERT USE) 08-15-16
Milbemectin (Use Pc Code 090105) 08-15-16
Myclobutanil 08-15-16
Norflurazon 08-15-16
Oryzalin 08-15-16
Oxadiargyl 08-15-16
Oxyfluorfen 08-15-16
Oxytetracycline 08-15-16
Paraquat 08-15-16
Pendimethalin 08-15-16
Permethrin 08-15-16
Phosmet 08-15-16
Pirimicarb 08-15-16
Pronamide 08-15-16
Propiconazole 08-15-16
Pyridaben 08-15-16
Pyriproxyfen 08-15-16
Savey 08-15-16
Sethoxydim 08-15-16
Simazine 08-15-16
Spinosad 08-15-16
Sulfur 08-15-16
Tebuconazole 08-15-16
Tebufenozide 08-15-16
Thiacloprid 08-15-16
Thiamethoxam 08-15-16
Thiazopyr 08-15-16
Thiophanate-methyl 08-15-16
Tifloxystrobin 08-15-16
Triazamate 08-15-16
Vanguard 08-15-16
Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2) 08-15-16


Worker Activities JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Entered Comments

References

Acknowledgments